Pharaohs were the kings of Ancient Egypt. They ruled over the land, collected taxes from the people, enforced the law and led the Egyptian army against invaders.
Tutankhamun became pharaoh after the death of his father Akhenaten. Akhenaten was a very controversial ruler. He outlawed all of the gods except for one called Aten.
The people were very unhappy with this change and, after Akhenaten's death, destroyed many of his statues and monuments.
Tutankhamun inherited the throne at the age of 9 or 10. Because he was so young, he had powerful advisers around him to help him rule Egypt. They included General Horemheb and Grand Vizier Ay.